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Kondash, Nancy E. Lauer, Avner Vengosh. ScienceDaily, 15 August Duke University.

Hydraulic fracturing

Water use for fracking has risen by up to percent since The volume of wastewater new wells generate during their first year of production has also increased -- by up to 1, percent. Retrieved December 1, from www. During the same period, Below are relevant articles that may interest you.

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Fracking, or hydraulic fracturing, is a way of extracting natural gas from shale rock formations that are often deep underground. It involves pumping water, chemicals and usually sand underground at high pressure to fracture shale — hence the name — and release the gas trapped within to be collected back at the surface. The technology has transformed the US energy landscape in the last decade, owing to the combination of high-volume fracking — 1.

In March the high court ruled that the government's fracking guidelines were unlawful because they had failed to sufficiently consider scientific evidence against fracking. In , the Cabinet Office said it expected that up to 20 wells would have been fracked in the UK by mid, but only three have been so far. Site operators have said the system to protect against the risk of earthquakes is stricter than that used internationally and claim this has hindered their ability to develop the industry, the report said.

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Auditors found that operations have proved costly for local authorities and police forces, which manage anti-fracking protests, traffic disruption and general public safety at the sites. The majority of these communities are based in rural areas where agriculture is a primary source of income.

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Seeing the potential payoffs from allowing these companies to frack on their land, many people sign contracts with little hesitation. Those who resist gas companies are effectively bullied into agreements.

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A number of communities within the U. Water pollution associated with fracking is one of the most startling impacts of natural gas extraction.

Every year, natural gas companies use around billion gallons of freshwater to carry out the process of fracking. Once the process of fracking is complete, this water has become so polluted with heavy metals and minerals in addition to the many suspected human carcinogens from fracking fluid that it can never be recovered.

Confounded by the issue of what to do with this wastewater, fracking companies have turned to underground waste wells and aquifers.

8 major gaps in B.C.’s knowledge about fracking | The Narwhal

Wastewater wells tend to leak. According to the Natural Resource Defense Council, between six and seven percent of waste wells leak which can mean an estimated 19 billion gallons of water contaminated with known endocrine disruptors, suspected human carcinogens and heavy metals, leaking into local watersheds every year. And this pollution is not isolated to people who allow fracking on their lands, contamination can be spread across an entire municipality. When fracking came to the town of Dimock, Pennsylvania , community members started reporting brown water that was making them sick and causing their livestock and pets to lose their fur.

The water was so corrosive that it would scar dishes and cause stains in laundry. Many found that their water supplies were polluted with methane , which cannot be filtered out by advanced water systems.

How Fracking Affects Natural Gas Prices

Craig and Julie Saunter, landowners in Dimock, told Vanity Fair that the methane pollution got so bad that they could not take showers without feeling lightheaded. Their son also developed sore on his legs after a period of time.

Tests run by the EPA found dangerously high levels of iron and aluminum in their water and now have freshwater shipped to their home every week. Many other families in Pennsylvania and across other fracking regions now have freshwater shipped to their homes because they have no other option. Trying to sell a house is difficult, but selling a house located on a contaminated water supply is near impossible.